Lakhdar Brahimi has some advantages over Kofi Annan, his unfortunate predecessor as peace envoy. Opération de recrutement ratée en début de saison tout les joueurs ciblés étaient sous contrat avec leurs clubs, Bensaid, Maouche qui ont même fait la préparation d'inter saison avec l'effectif usmiste au retour ils ont rejoint leurs anciens clubs. The latter had also acquired anti-tank guided missiles. The Turkish government has publicly stated that it does not recognize a difference between the Syrian YPG forces and PKK, and says both are terrorist organizations. , At the start of February, some rebel factions fighting on behalf of the Turkish army reportedly withdrew from Afrin in order to fight the Syrian army.  Prime Minister Binali Yildirim stated that those social users who make posts that criticize the operation or depict the military incursion as an attack on Kurds would be considered the "biggest villainy".  However a Czech court released Muslim.  36 militiamen belonging to the NDF were killed in Turkish airstrikes two days later on a camp in Kafr Jina, per SOHR.  There have been reports that some of the YPG fighters in Afrin were child soldiers.  A convoy of pro-Syrian government troops entered the region to support the YPG, but was hit by Turkish forces, who fired "warning shots".  On the next day, seven people were killed in Turkish shelling on Afrin. Lakhdar Brahimi is a former Algerian Minister of Foreign Affairs with wide experience in international diplomacy.  The DFNS was also supported by foreign fighters, including Iraqi fighters of the Sinjar Alliance, troops of the International Freedom Battalion, and PKK fighters. ", The Syrian Foreign Ministry on 20 January condemned "the Turkish aggression against the town of Afrin", calling it "an inseparable part of Syria". He served as the United Nations and Arab League Special Envoy to Syria from 2012 to 2014. Create New Account. Sadie Robertson. An AFP photographer stated that 30 buses carrying Syrian fighters had also crossed through the Cilvegözü border crossing. , On 27 January, in the first case of a Kurdish suicide attack against Turkish forces, female Kurdish YPJ fighter Zuluh Hemo (a.k.a.  These efforts meant that Afrin city had been stabilized to some degree by May, with displaced civilians returning and municipal services resuming. ", The Turkish government announced the start of the offensive on 19 January 2018, with Turkish Defence Minister Nurettin Canikli stating, "The operation has actually de facto started with cross-border shelling."  Between 8 and 9 March, the Turkish Army, alongside the TFSA, captured Jandairis and the Afrin Dam, reaching the outskirts of Afrin on 10 March. The reported attack took place during fighting in the village of al-Hammam. Public Figure. 03 Oct. ISPI Forum - The Future of Multilateralism. , Rising anti-American sentiment has also occurred since the start of the operation. Subsequently, the SDF moved eastward out of Afrin, and successfully attacked the rebels, capturing the Menagh Military Airbase and the town of Tell Rifaat. , According to a poll by pro-Turkish government A&G company, 89% of Turkish citizens see the PYD as a threat.. Pisces. Lakhdar Brahimi is one of the world’s finest and most experienced leaders in the world today.  The Turkish Deputy PM said this was "a move in support of terror". We struck the traitors", "We hit them in their den", "Iron fist to terror, olive branch to civilians", and "Our jets hit Afrin.  Turkish FM Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu responded that they welcomed Syrian forces if they wanted to fight the YPG, stating, "If so, there is no problem. I will remind you that the Americans are governing this country." Sur le plateau du Mad Mag, il a mis les choses au clair sur sa relation. Lakhdar Rahim. former UN Under Secretary General, Special Representative in Afghanistan and Special Envoy in Iraq. ", "EMEP: Fraternity of peoples is bombed in Afrin", "Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria", "Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria Read Full Article Here Turkey's Erdogan Declares Jihad on Religious Minorities in Syria", "Meclis'te Afrin gerilimi: 2 HDP'li vekil yaralandı", "Agos Editor-In-Chief considers Armenian Patriarchate's statement in current nationalist atmosphere in Turkey understandable", "Fear, Silence Weigh on Turkey's Armenians after Failed Coup", "Istanbul Greek Orthodox Patriarch lends support to Turkey's 'Operation Olive Branch' in Syria's Afrin", "Δημοσίευμα της Χουριέτ για στήριξη Βαρθολομαίου σε Ερντογάν για την επιχείρηση στο Αφρίν", "Επιστολή στήριξης του Οικουμενικού Πατριάρχη Βαρθολομαίου στον Ερντογάν για την επιχείρηση στο Αφρίν", "Syria war: Turkey arrests hundreds for criticising Afrin offensive", "Doctors Arrested as Turkish Crackdown Widens on Dissent", "Medical association to lose Turkish tag over criticism of Syria campaign", "Turkey's president calls anti-war students "terrorists, "Boğaziçi Üniversitesinden 'Afrin lokumu' açıklaması", "US is the enemy for Turkey.  Turkish artillery fire continued on the next day, killing another 16 people. Before his appointment in 2001 by the Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, he had served the U.N. as special representative to Haiti and to South Africa. The alliance was formed from 19 different groups, some of which were previously affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood of … The YPG shelled the TFSA-held town of Azaz. View the profiles of people named Rahim Lakhdar.  He was one of the founders of the French language Journal of Palestine Studies called La revue d'étude palestinienne. EVENTS. She lives in Amman, Jordan, with her husband and two children, Jalila and Abdullah ibn Ali; and Salem Brahimi, who lives in Paris, France, just a block away from his parents, with his wife Lawrence Brahimi, and his two children.  President of Syria Bashar al-Assad denounced the Turkish invasion as terrorism, saying "Turkey's aggression in the Syrian city of Afrin cannot be separated from the policy pursued by the Turkish regime since the outbreak of the Syrian crisis and built on support for terrorism and various terrorist groups". , The Afrin offensive has jeopardized the Astana Peace Process by placing the major parties—Russia, Iran, and Turkey—on opposing sides of the conflict. See more of Lakhdar_rahim on Facebook The Anadolu Chief Public Prosecutor's Office said that the posts were violations of the following crimes proscribed by articles of the Turkish Penal Code, including Article 301, which prohibit insulting public officials or the president, degrading the Turkish nation, and spreading terrorist propaganda. , After Syrian government forces pulled out of Afrin in 2012, Kurdish YPG forces took control of the territory. Gen. Hulusi Akar(Minister of Defence, Army Chief until July 2018) Gen. İsmail Metin Temel(Operations chief commander, until December 2018) Lt. Col. Muhammad Hamadin(Third Legion and Levant Front commander), Bahjt Abedo(Afrin Region defense minister) Mehmud Berxwedan(YPG and SDF Afrin commander), Per Turkey:  The hospital had already been inundated with injured people from the region, fleeing Turkish advances.  SDF troops had withdrawn to government-held areas, or to SDF areas east of the Euphrates. C’est dans une interview pour Téléstar que Lakhdar Rahim a défendu le programme . , Haaretz reported that US-backed Kurdish forces received aid from Syrian President Bashar al-Assad after Kurds requested that Damascus send reinforcements to protect Afrin's border. Tehran's position is that the Kurdish fighters are not acting independently, but rather are receiving support from multiple sides in the conflict. " The president of Boğaziçi University claimed that the protesters had assaulted the participants of a commemoration event on the campus for fallen Turkish soldiers and said their action was "an attack on freedom of expression". A PYD spokesman had already announced shortly after the capture of Afrin city that the SDF would continue to fight the pro-Turkish forces using guerilla tactics. Oscars Best Picture Winners Best Picture Winners Golden Globes Emmys San Diego Comic-Con New York Comic-Con Sundance Film Festival Toronto Int'l Film Festival Awards Central Festival Central All Events As such, the person can reach the bounties of Rahman and Rahim, both manifest and hidden, through his own essence.  However, on 7 March, Moody's Investors Service downgraded Turkey's debt, warning of an erosion of checks and balances under the leadership of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and saying that the Afrin offensive, having strained ties with Washington and drawn the country deeper into the Syrian civil war, had added an extra layer of geopolitical risk.  More arrests occurred on 19 February when dozens of politicians and journalists were arrested overnight including provincial heads of several Turkish cities that belong to the HDP. Deutsche kämpfen gegen Erdogan", "Assad, Iran support Kurdish forces against Turkey in Syria's Afrin with key weapon systems – reports", "Turkey takes full control of Syria's Afrin region, reports say", "Kurdish militia vows to make Afrin 'an ongoing nightmare' for Turks", "Afrin beginning to look less like a victory for Turkey as YPG mounts guerrilla campaign", "Turkey Has Made a Quagmire for Itself in Syria", "Turkey will not act against Russia, says deputy PM", "Turkish forces and Free Syrian Army capture Afrin city", "Bozdağ: Türkiye'nin Afrin de işi bitmemiştir - Politika haberleri", "Turkish army, FSA liberate another village in northwestern Syria", "Turkish army, FSA clear 7 more areas in NW Syria", Kurdish-led Afrin Liberation Forces attack Turkish base in Syria: video, HRE operations conjunction on 2nd anniversary Turkish attacks on Afrin, Resistance against Turkish forces in Raqqa grows increasingly violent, One killed, seven others wounded in northern Syria - Turkey, "Son dakika: Afrin harekatını Korgeneral İsmail Metin Temel yönetecek! 8,549 Followers, 18 Following, 1,761 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from ᒪᗩKᕼᗪᗩᖇ ᖇᗩᕼIᗰ (@team_lakhdar_rahiim) He was educated in Algeria and in France where he studied law and political science. , The TAF stated on 1 March that eight Turkish soldiers were killed, while 13 were wounded in clashes. 0 mentions. One day, thousands of people will siege İncirlik as well", Afrin operation sees another area cleared of YPG/PKK, "Turkey TV anchor Ahmet Keser quits over 'civilian killings' row", "Turkey imposes restrictive 'guidelines' on reporting Afrin battle", "Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan'dan flaş HDP açıklaması", "Turkey's Erdogan warns pro-Kurdish not to protest Afrin operation", "No one in Turkey dares report accurately on the war in Syria", "Journalists detained for social media posts criticising Turkish military operation", "Turkey's TRT probes news presenter for saying Turkish military targeting civilians in Afrin", "DBP Eş Genel Başkanı Mehmet Arslan gözaltına alındı", "HDP Eş Başkanı Kemalbay: Baskılar mücadelemizi engelleyemez", "Turkey detains 666 over social media criticism of Afrin operation", "The Latest: Turkish, Russian leaders speak on Syria", "Çavuşoğlu eleştirilere cevap verdi: YPG'ye ses çıkarmıyorsunuz çünkü aynı ideolojiyi paylaşıyorsunuz", "Turkey doctors get prison terms for criticising Syria offensive", "Turkey: Crackdown on Social Media Posts", "Assad: Turkey's Syria offensive is 'support for terrorism, "Assad slams Turkey's operation in Afrin as support for terrorism in Syria", Syria: Turkish regime forces occupation of Afrin illegitimate act, "Syria slams Turkey 'occupation' of Afrin, demands withdrawal", "Syria expects Turkey to withdraw from its soil", "Syrian Coalition: Operation 'Olive Branch' is Fundamental Part of Battle Against Dictatorship", "Turkmen leaders hail expected Afrin operation", "Syrian Kurdish political coalition breaks rank with mainstream opposition to condemn Turkish attack on Afrin", "The Kurdish National Council Confirms Its Categorical Rejection of the Coalition Statement Supporting The Turkish Intervention in Afrin", "Turkish jets bomb Syria's Kurdish-held Afrin", "Turkish jets target 100 points including civilian areas in Afrin – ANF News English", "Syrie: colère des habitants d'Idleb, délaissés des rebelles combattant à Afrin", "Azerbaijan fully understands Turkey's security concerns against terror threat – Foreign Ministry", "Bulgarian President calls for EU intervention against Turkish Syria incursion – Ahval", "Bulgaristan'dan AB'ye: Afrin'e acil müdahale edin", "The Republic of Cyprus condemns the illegal Turkish invasion in Afrin in north-western Syria", "Egypt condemns Turkish military operation in Syria's Afrin – Xinhua – English.news.cn", "Egypt says Turkish capture of Afrin an 'infringement on Syrian sovereignty, "French calls for emergency Security Council meeting on SyriaTurkey's fight with France over Afrin military operation", "French calls for emergency Security Council meeting on Syria", "France's Macron warns Turkey over Syrian operation", "Civilians pay price as Turkey battles Syrian Kurds", "France says Turkey, Iran violating international law in Syria", "Under pressure, France toughens talk on Turkish Syria operation", "Syrie : Emmanuel Macron annonce l'envoi de soldats au secours des Kurdes", "Syria war: France offers to mediate between Turkey and Kurds", "Germany: Turkey has legitimate security interests in Syria", "Germany halts plans to upgrade Turkey's Leopard tanks | News | DW | 25 January 2018", "Opposition kritisiert 'Kniefall der Regierung' vor Erdoğan", "Polizei muss Grünen-Politiker Özdemir in München vor türkischen Delegierten schützen", "Cem Özdemir steht nach Begegnung mit Türkei-Delegation unter Polizeischutz", "CDU-Politiker Röttgen fordert Rückzug der Türkei aus Nordsyrien", Turkey rejects Angela Merkel's criticism over Afrin offensiv, "Iran calls for end to Turkish offensive in Syria", "Iran urges Turkey to stop army offensive in northern Syria", "Iraq rejects Turkish military 'intervention' in Afrin, FM", "Was Erdogan macht, hat nichts mit Selbstverteidigung zu tun", "Zijlstra kritisch over Turkse operatie: 'mogelijk impact op strijd tegen IS, "Qatar: Turkey's Olive Branch Operation In Afrin is Legitimate", "Russia 'expects Turkey to hand over Afrin to Assad, "Swedish FM Wallström Cancels Turkey Visit Over Its Military Campaign in Afrin", "UK: Turkey has legitimate interest in border security", "PM and Erdogan discuss Turkish offensive against Kurdish militia in Syria", "ABD'den ilk tepki: Türkiye'nin PKK ile ilgili güvenlik kaygılarını anlıyoruz", "Turkey Attacks Kurds in Syria as U.S. “Le dossier de la JSK est à l’étude” - Découvrez gratuitement tous les articles, les vidéos et les infographies sur liberte-algerie.com  SOHR reported that Turkish troops had clashed with Kurdish militias on the northern and western borders of Afrin and entered the towns of Shankil and Adah Manli to the west. Syrian government called for international pressure on Turkey "to prevent the targeting of archaeological and cultural sites". 4 « J'ai peur de l'abandon. Among those arrested also included members of the Human Rights Association (IHD) and leaders of the Democratic Society Congress, a pro-Kurdish NGO.  On 12 February 2 foreign fighters, French citizen Olivier François Jean Le Clainche and Spanish citizen Samuel Prada Leon were killed in Afrin. " A senior Turkish government official denied the report.  In May 2019, eleven members of Turkey's leading medical association were imprisoned for criticising the invasion. Rahim Lakhdar is a member of Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them.  By Mid March, civilians started arriving in the city, organising themselves as human shields in anticipation of the attack while another 2000 civilians fled the city, in advance of the Turkish troops. Kylie Jenner. One researcher noted that the rebels might be operating "with the acquiescence" of the Syrian government. SANA confirmed Turkish artillery involvement but didn't mention any retreat. This is harmful for human rights and harmful for the society. , Later on 20 February, pro-Syrian government militias calling themselves the "Popular Forces" entered YPG-held Afrin. , The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimates that a total of 300,000 Kurdish people have been displaced. Since 2004, he has been Special Adviser to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. , Brahimi addressed a police academy in December 2016, expressing his wish that Algeria and Morocco should “leave the Sahara issue aside in an effort to build a communal economy based on exchange.” His statement caused shockwaves in Algeria. » Jazz Lanfranchi 395 jours Qui veut épouser mon fils ? Lakhdar Brahimi.  On 5 March, Rajo was confirmed by the SOHR to had been captured by the TFSA. Reality Star. Meanwhile, about 5,000 civilians had fled the Turkish advance in the contested areas, relocating into the central areas of Afrin Region. He has the signature.  In addition, Syrian pro-government forces entered the conflict on the side of the DFNS in February 2018. Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (TFSA) fighters who appear in the video call the female fighter a "female pig" and are heard saying "shame on them for sending women to fight".  After the capture of Rajo the TFSA also captured the notorious "black prison" near Rajo, which was known to be used by the YPG to jail and torture Kurdish dissents as well as anti-Assad activists and rebels. He has also been a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation since 2008, an organization which works to promote good governance around the world. Lynn Maalouf of Amnesty International stated: "The use of artillery and other imprecise explosive weapons in civilian areas is prohibited by international humanitarian law and all parties should cease such attacks immediately. By May 2018, an insurgency had broken out in Afrin District, as YPG holdouts and allied militants, calling themselves the "Afrin Falcons", were carrying out bombings, ambushes and assassinations against the Turkish army, the TFSA, and civilian sympathizers. Before coming to the U.N., Brahimi, who represented the National Liberation Front in Tunis during Algeria's independence movement in 1956–1961, was an Arab League official (1984–1991) and the Algerian Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1991 until 1993.  At least 47 people were reported injured, according to Al Jazeera. , On 28 January, pro-Turkish forces achieved their first major victory by capturing the strategic Barsaya mountain after several previous attacks on the mountain since 22 January failed due to Kurdish resistance. " Several witnesses who were asylum seekers affirmed that they were beaten, suffered abuses, and were denied medical care.  The offensive came amid growing tension between the Turkish and American governments over the latter's support of the Syrian Democratic Forces, which are made up primarily of Kurdish fighters of the YPG, which Turkey considers to be a branch of the PKK. , Turkey stated that 4,612 SDF fighters were killed, wounded or captured.  The explosion was believed to have been caused by the rigging of a fuel tanker with hand grenades, the governor of Hatay province of the neighboring Turkish border stated. Reality Star. "I asked him why he didn't say that publicly (and) he said, 'I am the U.N. envoy to Iraq, how can I admit to failure?  İbrahim Karagül, editor-in-chief of the pro-AKP Yeni Şafak, wrote that the US is the real enemy and that it has a plan to "divide and destroy Turkey" by allying itself to PKK and ISIS.  Several Jihadist fighters among the Turkish-backed forces released a video threatening to cut off the heads of Kurds whom they consider "infidels". Turkey's heart beats as one" from the Sözcü, Sabah, Habertürk, and Hürriyet newspapers respectively. , The largest group is between 10,000 and 25,000 Syrian Arab and Turkmen rebel fighters operating under the banner of the Syrian Interim Government and trained and supported by Turkey. Log In.  However, a while later, Nuri denied they had reached an agreement with the Syrian government. One YPG commander said that his troops had not placed any explosives "within cities or residential areas", while TFSA officials estimated that the YPG had left "tens of thousands" of hidden mines behind. 62 killed, 389–500 civilians killed in Syria(per SOHR & SDF)[b]7–9 civilians killed in Turkey (2 Syrians), a The TAF announced the start of Operation Olive Branch on 20 January, while the Turkish Defence Minister stated it "de facto started with cross-border shelling" the day before when one additional SDF fighter was killed. Veteran Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi, the UN and Arab League envoy for Syria, brings decades of peacemaking experience to his new role - a mission he has described as "nearly impossible". With the support of the Turkish government and the stabilization committee, the local council in Afrin was able to fix the engines of Meydanki Dam, and was able to pump water to the desalination plant in the town of Sharran, to provide drinkable water for residents of Afrin and the city of Azaz. , Less than a week after the operation began, Redur Xelil, a senior SDF official, said that at least 66 civilians had been killed by aerial and artillery bombardment by Turkish forces, and accused Turkey of committing war crimes. Fan Page.  The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein said of the capture: "In the city of Afrin, which was captured by Turkish forces yesterday, scores of civilians have been killed and injured due to airstrikes, ground-based strikes, and explosive hazards, and thousands have been displaced. They met light resistance and penetrated to the center of the city.  Andrew Gardner, Amnesty International's senior adviser on Turkey, stated that there has been an "alarming" increase of similar rhetoric in Turkey. 2.6K likes. Despite Turkish attempts to train and disciplined them, these militias sometimes violently clashed with each other and terrorized the local civilians.  Doğan News Agency stated that a Turkish helicopter evacuating wounded had to return when it was hit. The most notable of these advantages is that the various parties to the conflict are beginning to understand that a clear victory by either side is unlikely, and that a prolonged war will destroy the country and will serve no one’s interest -- except Israel.  On 9 March 3 Turkish citizen foreign fighters belonging to MLKP were reportedly killed in Afrin.  In the aftermath of the conflict, Turkish forces implemented a resettlement policy by moving refugees from Eastern Ghouta into the newly-empty homes.  By the end of August, 108 rebels and Turkish soldiers were reportedly killed in Kurdish guerrilla attacks.  As of early September, attacks were taking place in the forests in the outskirts of Afrin city. Less than a week after the operation began, İsmail Kahraman, the Speaker of the Grand National Assembly in Turkey and deputy of AKP, called for an open jihad in Afrin.  According to Turkish sources, Russia temporarily closed Syrian airspace to Turkey to establish an electronic defence mechanism against the shoulder-launched missiles since the night of 4 February. Those killed included two pregnant women. [needs update], In the days prior to the offensive, Turkey and the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army exchanged artillery fire with YPG militants along the Turkish-Syrian border near Afrin. Amnesty also reported the shelling by the YPG of Azaz, though these actions were to a lesser extent.  Turkish Armed Forces denied the report. , On 19 February 2018, Turkish authorities announced that all protests, meetings, rallies, and concerts held in Turkey's capital Ankara will be prohibited for the duration of the operation. The president, one of the two vice-presidents, and the prime minister are all from the council.  On 15 March, a Briton named Anna Campbell was reportedly killed in Afrin. , The Independent stated that Turkish allied forces were of forcibly converting Yazidis, a Kurdish-speaking religious minority, to Islam and destroying Yazidi places of worship after conquering their villages..  After days of shelling, Turkish fighter jets on 20 January 2018 carried out air strikes on the border district targeting positions held by the PYD and YPG groups. " Erdoğan then added: "Know that wherever you go out on the streets our security forces are on your necks.  On 25 February, Salih Muslim was detained in Prague at Turkey's request. C'est avec beaucoup d'affliction et de peine, que nous, famille de Krim Belkacem, apprenons le décès de feu commandant Lakhdar Bouregaâ. Dans ce premier extrait, Sam Zirah interroge Lakhdar Rahim (La villa des cœurs brisés 2, NT1) sur ce qu’il s’est passé avec son ami Florian Roche. It is not possible for us to allow this. , Turkish mainstream newspapers featured front page titles such as "We said we would strike despite the US and Russia. , On 18 November 2018, the Turkish Army and Turkish-backed rebel factions launched an operation against a group named al-Sharqiya Martyrs of about 200 fighters who were reported to disobey and commit abuses. Lakhdar Brahimi, who gave up Tuesday after trying unsuccessfully to mediate an end to Syria's civil war, has spent his career in the diplomatic trenches of the world's most intractable conflicts. He also served as Under Secretary General of the League of Arab States […]  Despite this, the CIA named the PYD as the "Syrian wing" of the PKK in its World Factbook on 23 January 2018. Nuri Mahmoud, a YPG spokesman, told Al-Jazeera that they had called upon pro-Syrian government forces "to preserve a united Syria" but added they hadn't arrived yet. Per Turkey: 4,612 killed, wounded or captured: 389–500 civilians killed in Syria (per SOHR & SDF) 7–9 civilians killed in Turkey (2 Syrians). There had been reports that the agreement, as well as a recent halt in Turkish airstrikes on the Afrin region, was approved after the Turkish troop deployment in the Aleppo province and the downing of a Russian Su-25 by rebels in the Idlib province, located close to Turkish troops on 3 February. He also stated, "Unfortunately, these kind of terror organizations take wrong steps with the decisions they take. Turkey has admitted taking the olives, explaining: "We do not want revenues to fall into PKK hands". He has a long and extensive career as a representative and ambassador of Algeria in many nations, wherein he strengthened the relationships between these countries and Algeria through his flamboyant, yet straightforward personality.  Based in Jakarta for five years, he was the representative of the National Liberation Front (Algeria) in South East Asia, touring the region in search of diplomatic support..  The SDF also reported 500 civilians and 62 pro-Syrian government militiamen were killed. For much of the conflict the Syrian government and Kurdish forces have avoided one another; however, in the months leading up to the conflict Damascus began threatening to retake parts of North and Eastern Syria that had been captured by the US-backed SDF and even launched an attack against Deir al-Zor, which was met by coalition airstrikes.